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Iran Ocean Acidification Observing Network


Introduction

When carbon dioxide (CO2) is absorbed by seawater, chemical reactions occur that reduce seawater pH, carbonate ion concentration, and saturation states of biologically important calcium carbonate minerals. Land practices, such as high nutrient run-off, can also impact the acidity of coastal waters. Studies have shown that lower environmental calcium carbonate saturation states can have a dramatic effect on some calcifying species, including oysters, clams, sea urchins, shallow water corals, deep sea corals, and calcareous plankton. Researchers in the Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Science have been measuring ocean carbon chemistry in the waters in some coral sites in the Persian Gulf since 2012 (Saleh et al. 2020). There is a considerable seasonal and interannual variability, however the long- term trend should be a gradual increase in acidity (Saleh 2020), in line with what is being observed at other places around the world. However, we do not know much about other Iranian marine locations, particularly coastal regions.

The aim

The IrOA-ON will be a network of coastal sites at the north and south of the country. For the beginning, we have started with 4 coastal sites including: northern coast of the Gulf of Oman (Gulf of Oman and Indian Ocean Center- Chabahar), north of the Strait of Hormuz (Persian Gulf Oceanography Center- Bandar Abbas), Kish Island (Kish Free Zone Organization - Department of Environment) and northern coasts of the Persian Gulf (Persian Gulf Oceanography Center- Bushehr) (Fig. 1).  Data will be used to determine local conditions, and to provide a baseline against which to measure future change. This network has been registered in the Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network (GOA-ON) portal

 The data of the IrOA-ON will be deposited on the Iranian National Centre for Ocean Data (INCOD) portal.

The activity of IrOA-ON is one of the main activities in the "Iranian Coastal Monitoring Program (ICMP)", one of the major programs of the National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Science.

 

 Sampling Partners

 Sampling partners will collect the water samples, possibly as part of existing monitoring programs, and will have access to the data to help them with their own management strategies. Sampling partners will be scientists from INIOAS and other marine institutes as well as local volunteers (Table 1).

 

Table 1 Locations and partners of IrOA-ON

 

 

Location

Organization

People

1

Northern coast of the Gulf of Oman - Chabahar

Gulf of Oman and Indian Ocean Center- Chabahar

Hamid Ershadifar

2

North of the Strait of Hormuz

Persian Gulf Oceanography Center- Bandar Abbas

Mahammad Ali Hamzeh

3

Kish Island

Kish Free Zone Organization - Department of Environment

Maryam Mohammadi,

 Seyed Ali Jebeli

4

Northern coasts of the Persian Gulf - Bushehr

Persian Gulf Oceanography Center- Bushehr

Maryam Ghaemi,

Ahmad Arabzadeh,

Sara Gholamipour

5

Marine Chemistry Lab

Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Science - Tehran

Davoud Jahedi Vaighan, Abolfazl Saleh

6

Marine Chemistry Lab

Caspian Sea Oceanography Center- Nowshahr

Ali Hamzehpour

 

Fig. 1 Current IrOA-ON Sampling sites

Method Overview

  • Water samples should be taken every two weeks at each site (in duplicate) (see Figure 1 for the sampling sites) by the sampling partners (Table 1), then the full crates (including 8 samples) are returned (every two months) to INIOAS’ Marine Chemistry Lab in Tehran for analysis of acidity parameters and to Caspian Sea Oceanography Center- Nowshahr Chemistry Lab for nutrients analysis.

Fig. 2 Sampling packs of IrOA-ON

 

  • IrOA provides sampling partners with bottles, crates, chemically resistant gloves and training (including health and safety information) (Fig. 2). The actual sampling isn’t difficult, however sampling partners are required to use a droplet bottle to add a couple of drops of mercuric chloride (which is toxic) into the full sample bottles, so that the seawater is ‘preserved’ until it gets to the lab.
  • Data will be deposited in INCOD and available on request.

 

Resources for Sampling Partners 

·         IrOA-ON Sampling sheet [Doc I] - Downloadable form for Sampling Partners to record conditions at time of water sampling.

·         MSDS Mercuric chloride [Doc II] – downloadable safety information for the mercuric chloride used for preserving the seawater samples.

·         IrOA-ON Sampling Protocol for Alkalinity and DIC Sample [Doc III] – downloadable instruction sheet on how to take a water sample.

·         IrOA-ON Return address label [Doc IV] – printable label to use when returning sample crates to the lab in Tehran.

·       Video- a short video for the IrOA-ON Sampling Partners describing the contents of the sampling crate, and the methods used for taking a water sample, including safety information.

 

Contact person

Dr. Abolfazl Saleh (saleh@inio.ac.ir)

 References

 

[1]   The Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network (GOA-ON) is a collaborative international approach to document the status and progress of ocean acidification in open-ocean, coastal, and estuarine environments, to understand the drivers and impacts of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems, and to provide spatially and temporally resolved biogeochemical data necessary to optimize modelling for ocean acidification.
[2]   Saleh A, JV Samiei, F Amini-Yekta, MS Hashtroudi, CTA Chen, et al., 2020, The carbonate system on the coral patches and rocky intertidal habitats of the northern Persian Gulf: Implications for ocean acidification studies Marine Pollution Bulletin 151, 110834.
[3]   Saleh A, 2020, Past, present and future state of the carbonate system and acidification in Hengam coral reef in the Persian Gulf, Journal of Oceanography.

 


Introduction

When carbon dioxide (CO2) is absorbed by seawater, chemical reactions occur that reduce seawater pH, carbonate ion concentration, and saturation states of biologically important calcium carbonate minerals. Land practices, such as high nutrient run-off, can also impact the acidity of coastal waters. Studies have shown that lower environmental calcium carbonate saturation states can have a dramatic effect on some calcifying species, including oysters, clams, sea urchins, shallow water corals, deep sea corals, and calcareous plankton. Researchers in the Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Science have been measuring ocean carbon chemistry in the waters in some coral sites in the Persian Gulf since 2012 (Saleh et al. 2020). There is a considerable seasonal and interannual variability, however the long- term trend should be a gradual increase in acidity (Saleh 2020), in line with what is being observed at other places around the world. However, we do not know much about other Iranian marine locations, particularly coastal regions.

The aim

The IrOA-ON will be a network of coastal sites at the north and south of the country. For the beginning, we have started with 4 coastal sites including: northern coast of the Gulf of Oman (Gulf of Oman and Indian Ocean Center- Chabahar), north of the Strait of Hormuz (Persian Gulf Oceanography Center- Bandar Abbas), Kish Island (Kish Free Zone Organization - Department of Environment) and northern coasts of the Persian Gulf (Persian Gulf Oceanography Center- Bushehr) (Fig. 1).  Data will be used to determine local conditions, and to provide a baseline against which to measure future change. This network has been registered in the Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network (GOA-ON) portal

 The data of the IrOA-ON will be deposited on the Iranian National Centre for Ocean Data (INCOD) portal.

The activity of IrOA-ON is one of the main activities in the "Iranian Coastal Monitoring Program (ICMP)", one of the major programs of the National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Science.

 

 Sampling Partners

 Sampling partners will collect the water samples, possibly as part of existing monitoring programs, and will have access to the data to help them with their own management strategies. Sampling partners will be scientists from INIOAS and other marine institutes as well as local volunteers (Table 1).

 

Table 1 Locations and partners of IrOA-ON

 

 

Location

Organization

People

1

Northern coast of the Gulf of Oman - Chabahar

Gulf of Oman and Indian Ocean Center- Chabahar

Hamid Ershadifar

2

North of the Strait of Hormuz

Persian Gulf Oceanography Center- Bandar Abbas

Mahammad Ali Hamzeh

3

Kish Island

Kish Free Zone Organization - Department of Environment

Maryam Mohammadi,

 Seyed Ali Jebeli

4

Northern coasts of the Persian Gulf - Bushehr

Persian Gulf Oceanography Center- Bushehr

Maryam Ghaemi,

Ahmad Arabzadeh,

Sara Gholamipour

5

Marine Chemistry Lab

Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Science - Tehran

Davoud Jahedi Vaighan, Abolfazl Saleh

6

Marine Chemistry Lab

Caspian Sea Oceanography Center- Nowshahr

Ali Hamzehpour

 

Fig. 1 Current IrOA-ON Sampling sites

Method Overview

  • Water samples should be taken every two weeks at each site (in duplicate) (see Figure 1 for the sampling sites) by the sampling partners (Table 1), then the full crates (including 8 samples) are returned (every two months) to INIOAS’ Marine Chemistry Lab in Tehran for analysis of acidity parameters and to Caspian Sea Oceanography Center- Nowshahr Chemistry Lab for nutrients analysis.

Fig. 2 Sampling packs of IrOA-ON

 

  • IrOA provides sampling partners with bottles, crates, chemically resistant gloves and training (including health and safety information) (Fig. 2). The actual sampling isn’t difficult, however sampling partners are required to use a droplet bottle to add a couple of drops of mercuric chloride (which is toxic) into the full sample bottles, so that the seawater is ‘preserved’ until it gets to the lab.
  • Data will be deposited in INCOD and available on request.

 

Resources for Sampling Partners 

·         IrOA-ON Sampling sheet [Doc I] - Downloadable form for Sampling Partners to record conditions at time of water sampling.

·         MSDS Mercuric chloride [Doc II] – downloadable safety information for the mercuric chloride used for preserving the seawater samples.

·         IrOA-ON Sampling Protocol for Alkalinity and DIC Sample [Doc III] – downloadable instruction sheet on how to take a water sample.

·         IrOA-ON Return address label [Doc IV] – printable label to use when returning sample crates to the lab in Tehran.

·       Video- a short video for the IrOA-ON Sampling Partners describing the contents of the sampling crate, and the methods used for taking a water sample, including safety information.

 

Contact person

Dr. Abolfazl Saleh (saleh@inio.ac.ir)

 References

 

[1]   The Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network (GOA-ON) is a collaborative international approach to document the status and progress of ocean acidification in open-ocean, coastal, and estuarine environments, to understand the drivers and impacts of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems, and to provide spatially and temporally resolved biogeochemical data necessary to optimize modelling for ocean acidification.
[2]   Saleh A, JV Samiei, F Amini-Yekta, MS Hashtroudi, CTA Chen, et al., 2020, The carbonate system on the coral patches and rocky intertidal habitats of the northern Persian Gulf: Implications for ocean acidification studies Marine Pollution Bulletin 151, 110834.
[3]   Saleh A, 2020, Past, present and future state of the carbonate system and acidification in Hengam coral reef in the Persian Gulf, Journal of Oceanography.

 

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